Chemistry Around You

Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

Chemical formulae
-name the precipitate formed when two known solutions are mixed.
-write the correct formula of an ionic compound given its name and valency table.
-name an ionic compound given its formula.

-interpret some common formulae , identify the elements present and the number of atoms of each element. (NH3, H2SO4, Na2CO3, HCl, NaCl, C6H12O6).

Chemical equations
-write a simple word equation to describe a reaction.

-write a word equation for the reaction between:
- an acid and a carbonate;
- an acid and a metal;
- an acid and a base;

- write a balanced chemical equation Link
Atomic structure and bonding
-describe the structure of the atom, with the aid of a diagram, using the terms electrons, protons, neutrons, nucleus and energy levels.
-define and be able to give the mass number and atomic number of an element. Link
-recall the contribution of scientists such as, Dalton, Rutherford to the development of our present day understanding of the atomic structure. Link
-describe the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of the first ten elements
-identify a stable electronic arrangement
-predict the charge of ions formed by electron transfer. Link
-outline the two ways in which electrons are transferred between atoms. Link
-predict if a covalent or ionic bond will form between two atoms and give the formula of the product formed. This can be demonstrated by developing and playing a simple atoms game. Link
-by referring to the structure of the atom explain how fireworks create spectacular colour displays. Link
-place an element in its right place on the periodic table by knowing its atomic number.  
Periodic table  
-explain why an element is placed in a particular group and period on the periodic table. Link
-explain how the reactivity of metals changes down group one
-describe some properties of the group 1 metals, alkali metals, such as they react with water to produce hydrogen gas and their reactivity increases as we move down the group.
-describe properties of the noble gases of group 8 or 18.
-explain the properties of an element given the properties of another element in the same group on the periodic table.
Gases and chemical reactions around us:
-describe several chemical reactions that occur around the home, by identifying the reactants, the products and any special conditions required to make them proceed. Link
-recall, with a chemical equation, the reaction between a carbonate and an acid using baking powder and tartaric acid as one producing carbon dioxide, water and a salt. Link
-give the properties of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and oxygen. Link
-describe a reaction where carbon dioxide is not used as a fire ret ardent but actually fuels the burning. Link
-using the properties of carbon dioxide explain why it is dangerous in confined spaces. Link
-outline a way which carbon dioxide can be removed from the exhaust gases of chimneys.. Link
-using the properties of carbon dioxide describe why people working in confined spaces and excavations need special training when using heavy machinery. Link
-explain,using the collision theory, why activation energy is needed to start some reactions. Link
The chemistry of artificial flavours and smells Link
-recall some uses of esters.
-describe how esters are synthesised in the laboratory.
-recall that many esters occur naturally and give plants unique smells and tastes.
-identify the esters in some foods and give the flavour that the ester produces.
-given the name of the ester derive the organic acid and alcohol needed to produce it.
-describe some of the properties of esters, such as, low boiling points and separating techniques, such as distillation, that can be used to purify an ester from a mixture.
-describe the properties of plastics.
-describe some of the moulding techniques and the type of plastic products moulded by each technique.
-identify plastics as thermosetting or thermoplastic.
-describe the molecular structure of thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics.
-relate the properties and uses of plastics to their chemical structure.
-explain how plastics are formed using the terms monomer, polymer and polymerisation.
-explain the difference in properties between a rubber tyre and an oven door handle with reference to their chemical structure.
-describe how reactive metals react with less reactive metals in terms of electron transfer. Link
-place in order of least to most reactive the following metals, gold, iron, zinc and sodium. Link
-explain rusting in terms of a chemical reaction where electrons are transferred between iron and oxygen. Link
-describe ways of preventing rust. Link
-explain how a sacrificial anode works to stop iron from rusting. Link
-identify a metal that can be used as a sacrificial anode given a table of experimental data. Link
-place metals in order of reactivity given experimental data. Link
-explain how reactive metals are used in a battery to provide electricity. Link
-identify aluminium as a very reactive metal and discuss reasons why aluminium is used in cookware Link
-describe how reactive metals react with water to produce hydrogen gas. Link
-using a lemon battery describe how reactive metals can be used to generate electricity Link
Chemistry of the environment
-define the Green House Effect (GHE) Link

-define a greenhouse gas and give five examples and their source.

-explain the role of carbon dioxide in the GHE. Link
-draw a diagram depicting the carbon cycle. Illustrating the importance of oceans, limestone, human activity, forests (photosynthesis) Link
-explain how fossil fuels contribute to the GHE.  
-give alternative sources of energy, such as nuclear, hydro, solar, wind etc, and explain why these are more greenhouse friendly. Link
- explain the term biofuels and carbon neutral fuels, using the chemical reactions of photosynthesis and fermentation in their explanation Link
-explain how biodiesel is formed and why it is a carbon neutral source of energy. Link
-explain why ethanol is promoted as a carbon neutral fuel but in reality it is not. Link
-explain what is acid rain, its effects and how our reliance on fossil fuels has increased the amount of acid rain. Link
-describe the importance of ozone to life on earth and its indirect involvement in global warming. Link
-discuss the use of CFC's in industry, past and present, and their action on the ozone layer. Link
-clearly articulate the link between CFC's, ozone and the GHE. Link
-offer five solutions with clear explanations for the reduction of carbon dioxide emission. This may be done as an assignment.  

-Possible assignments of 1,500 words.

- discuss, with clear examples, how our lifestyle impacts on global warming. This may be done as an assignment.

- discuss the environmental impact of the success of bottled water. Discuss the benefits and costs of bottled water.



The serpent
Making money increase in value.
The bouncing ball
Reactivity of sodium in water
Oxygen gas igniting a candle.
Colourful bottles
Energy in sugar
Water as a fuel
Magic wine bar
Rags to riches
Genie in a bottle
Chemical snakes
Hydrogel (uses of plastics)

Recovery of copper metal from copper carbonate
Percentage yield of a copper ore.
Conservation of mass (recovery of copper)
Electroplating metals
Making sparklers
Precipitation reactions
Making plastic slime , elastomer, Gakistuff and a plastic toy , making snakes
Making a home battery.
Making esters
Making biodiesel
Rusting experiment
Reactivity of metals
Flame tests
Identification of white powders
Lemon battery

Revision tests

Atomic structure
Periodic table
Chemical equations and ionic formulae
. Note when attempting this test that a precipitate is an insoluble solid and has the subfix (s) next to it in a chemical equation. Before attempting this test it is best to refresh yourself with precipitates.
Particle theory

Practice exam Solutions for part A. Solutions for part B