Week 1-3 Timeline for Beasts on Land Sea and Air.



Pond life

Diffusion prac

Animal and plant cells similarities and differences

A virus (The smallest known creatures)

- identify the presence of a cell wall and chloroplasts in plant cells major differences between plant and animal cells
- identify similarities between plant and animal cells.
- describe how a virus attacks its host and why it is considered neither lving nor dead.
- identify the
different parts of the virus and explain how the body reacts to the invasion of a virus.
- describe the importance of antibodies and our immune system to a viral attack.

Cell organelles their structure and function

- identify organelles from a picture of a cell.
- describe the structure and function of certain organelles such as , mitochondria, ribosomes, nucleus, chloroplast.

How to use a microscope.

- describe and demonstrate how to prepare a wet mount slide.
- describe and demonstrated how to focus a specimen on the stage.
- identify different parts of the microscope and describe their function .

The need for cells to stay small, diffusion and osmosis

- describe how particles move about in solution with kinetic energy.
- describe diffusion as the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
- explain that the speed with which a substance diffuses from one area to another is dependent on the speed (temperature) and the distance the substance has to travel.

week 4-5

Experimental technique

A simple and quick activity to introduce students to the experimental technique is the antibacterial investigation?.
- formulate an appropriate hypothesis.
- recall that an aim identifies the purpose of the investigation whereas a hypothesis is a more precise testable statement of what the researcher predicts will be the outcome of the study and provide one relevant example.
eg The aim of an investigation is to see how much is remembered by students who attend a lecture on the following morning.
The hypothesis may be that students remember more before lunch of the next day than after lunch of the next day.
- be able to collect, tabulate and graph data on appropriate set of axes.
- be able to recognise dependent and independent variables.
- design and conduct proper scientific investigations.
- be able to identify bad experimental technique and describe the consequence on the validity of the data collected.

These practicals can be done here to reinforce the experimental technique or can be done later during hte study of homeostasis.

Does antibacterial hand soap really work?

Reaction times practical.

Water retention practical.

Exercise and blood pressure practical.

Week 6-8 Food chains and ecosystems
- explain how energy passes from organism to organism in a food chain
- describe the form and source of the energy that passes from organism to organism
- describe the role of plants as the source of photosynthesis within an ecosystem.
- describe the process of photosynthesis and the site within a plant where it takes place.
- explain how cellular respiration is the opposite to photosynthesis.
- describe a food chain identifying the producers, decomposers, herbivore and other consumers.
- discuss how trees are responsible for the movement of water from deep underground to the atmosphere through transpiration.
. explain how nutrients are recycled in ecosystems but energy has to be constantly supplied.
- describe the impact of Humans on a number of ecosystems . These can be introduction of foreign organisms to control local pests, such as the Cane Toad, or culling of sharks by the WA government in response to a number of shark attacks on local beaches.

Terrarium activity

Transpiration activity

Counting stomata

Carbon cycle
- draw a basic carbon cycle showing the different carbon sinks, such as the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere.
- explain how carbon moves from sink to sink in the carbon cycle.
- explain the role of photosynthesis in the removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
- explain the term Global Warming.
- explain the role of CO2 in global warming.
- explain the role of fossil fuels to global warming
- outline the link between the carbon cycle and global warming


week 9-12

Body systems
- describe at least three major systems of the body their function and the organs that make up each system.

Digestive mammalian
- identify the major organs of the mammalian digestive system and their function.
- be able to describe how large molecules, such as, proteins and lipids are broken down into smaller molecules in the digestive system.
- Describe the difference between a physical and a chemical change of the food during the digestive process.

- identify the major organs of the mammalian respiratory system and their function.
- identify the ways in which mammals increase the surface area necessary for gas exchange through the use of alveoli.

- Birds
- identify the differences between mammalian and avian respiratory systems.
- identify different structures in the avian system that do not exist in the mammalian system and explain why the avian respiratory system is more efficient than the tidal system used by mammals.

- Fish
- describe the function and structure of gills.
- explain what is meant by counter current.
- explain why gills are more efficient in removing oxygen from water than alveoli are in removing oxygen from air.

- Insects
- describe the differences between the insect respiratory system and the mammalian.
- suggest why insects cannot afford to grow too big with such a respiratory system.

Circulatory system
- identify the structure and function of the major organs of the mammalian circulatory system.
- identify the four chambers of the heart and identify the type of blood that flows through each chamber.
- describe the physical differences between arteries and veins.

- Fish
- describe the difference between the fish heart and the mammalian heart.
- describe differences in the way blood flow is maintained in the fish as compared to mammals and suggest why the fish must constantly be moving.

- Amphibian
- discuss differences between the three chambered amphibian heart and the four chambered mammalian heart.
- outline how the amphibian compensates for such inefficient mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the heart.
- explain what a closed circulatory system is and give one example.

- explain what an open circulatory system is and give one example.
- outline the differences and similarities between an open and a closed circulatory system.

- insect.
- describe how the insect circulatory system differs from that of a mammal.
- describe similarities between the mammalian and insect circulatory systems in that they both require some type of pump.

Homeostasis (systems working together)
- identify homeostasis as systems working together to maintain a constant internal environment which allows the organism to be active in any external condition.
- give an example of a substance under homeostatic control in a mammal and explain the simple pathway by which control is maintained.
- explaining a homeostatic mechanism, such as the body's response to hypothermia, be able to use the words effector, processor or control centre, receptor and variable in context.
- explain what a negative feedback loop is and offer one example.

- Temperature regulation
- discuss how the body deals with hyperthermia and hypothermia.
- identify the different parts of the homeostatic control of temperature and discuss how they interact to maintain constant temperature.

- Blood pressure regulation
- discuss how the body deals with high and low blood pressure.
- identify the different parts of the homeostatic control mechanism of blood pressure control and explain how the different parts interact to maintain even blood pressure.

Homeostasis activity -blood pressure

Rehydration activity can be conducted. Rubric for the activity.

Rat dissection

Fish dissection

Toad dissection

Heart dissection

Kidney dissection

week 13-14

Genetic code

- Translation of the genetic code
- describe what happens within a cell during the process of translation.
- explain how the genetic code in DNA is formed as a set of triplet bases known as a codon and how each codon codes for an amino acid.
- use a car assembly analogy to describe the function of each of:
-- tRNA
-- Ribosome
-- amino acid
-- mRNA
-- gene
-- protein
-- nucleus

Simple reproduction of cells
- mitosis
- describe how a somatic cell divides as the organism grows by identifying the stages of mitosis.
- describing what happens to the chromosomes at each stage of mitosis.

Project of translation
Week 15-16


- processes that underpin evolution
- explain natural selection or "survival of the fittest" as the process that underpins evolution.
- explain how characteristics are passed on form generation to generation in the form of DNA packaged in genes.
- explain how mutation is the cause of variation in a population.
- give examples of what "survival of the fittest" means using an organism studied in class, such as the stick insect population.
- Using an organ, such as the eye, describe a possible path of how it evolved to its current form. Students should also be aware of the imperfection within the eye as manifestations of evolution .

- plate tectonics
- describe how the theory of plate tectonics explains the movement of continents and the formation of geographical structures.
- be able to describe the role of geographical isolation caused by plate tectonics over time to the development of new species.
- historical understanding (Darwin)
- evidence for evolution (vestigial structures, fossil evidence, etc)
- construct an evidence based argument for evolution using a range of topics such as,
vestigial structures and fossil records.

Evolution activity

Study stick insect population.

Chicken wing dissection.

Week 17-18


- of motion

- of buoyancy

Acceleration (Cheetah vs Human)

- change in velocity
- velocity vs time graphs


Week 19-20

Examination revision 1 Solutions 1

Examination revision 2 Solutions 2