Reactions with acids

Acids react with different compounds to produce a variety of substances. Below is a table that summarises these reactions.

acid + base => salt + water HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) => NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
acid + carbonate => salt + water + carbon dioxide gas 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) => 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
acid + sulfide => salt + hydrogen sulfide gas 2HCl(aq) + Na2S(s) => 2NaCl(aq) + H2S(g)
acid + oxide => salt + water 2HCl(aq) + MgO(s) => MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
acid + sulfite => salt + water + sulfur dioxide gas 2HCl(aq) + Na2SO3(s) => 2NaCl(aq) + SO2(g) + H2O(l)
acid + hydroxide => salt + water 2HCl(aq) + Ca(OH)2(aq) => CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
acid + metal => salt + hydrogen gas 2HCl(aq) + 2Na(s) => 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g)

Identifying the gas produced.
Carbon dioxide will not support combustion. Click to see a 120kb video.
Hydrogen gas is very flammable. Click to see a 120kb video.
Oxygen gas will ignite a glowing splint. Click to see a 120kb video.

A knowledge of valencies comes in very handy when attempting the following exercises.

Write the overall equation for the following reactions

Sulfuric acid and solid sodium carbonate.  
Nitric acid and magnesium metal  
Hydrochloric acid and magnesium sulfide  
Sulfuric acid and magnesium oxide powder.  
Nitric acid and aqueous calcium hydroxide.  
Hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium sulfite.  
Sulfuric acid and solid calcium carbonate  
Nitric acid and aqueous sodium carbonate.  

Video worksheet